In our list of the best brokers for beginners, we focused on the features that help new investors learn as they are starting their investing journey. Brokers were selected based on top-notch educational resources, easy navigation, clear commission and pricing structures, and portfolio construction tools. Some brokers also offered low minimum account balances, and demo accounts to practice.
Best for Beginners
Our list of the top five brokers for beginners:
- TD Ameritrade
- Fidelity Investments
- Charles Schwab
- Merrill Edge
- Account Minimum: $0
- Fees: Free stock, ETF, and per-leg options trading commissions in the U.S., as of October 3rd, 2019. $0.65 per options contract.
Despite slightly higher than average fees, TD Ameritrade attained the top spot because of the firm鈥檚 detailed educational platform, its range of product offerings, and the ability to open an account and explore before depositing any money. Beginning traders should get started on TD Ameritrade鈥檚 standard web-based interface, frequently referred to as 鈥渢he green site.鈥 As they grow comfortable with trading, they can move up the features ladder into Trade Architect, and consider jumping into the rich thinkorswim trading platform, which is packed with tools for sophisticated options traders. This is a broker that can grow with you. We also found its demo account, research tools, and mobile apps to be much better than the industry average.
Previously the most expensive of the major online brokers, TD Ameritrade eliminated base trading commissions on equities, ETFs, and options for U.S.-based customers.
Well-rounded set of educational material and resources
$0 minimum initial investment
Tools are spread across multiple platforms
The website is so packed with content and tools that finding a particular item is difficult
- Account Minimum: $0
- Fees: No commission for stock/ETF trades. Options are $0.50-$0.65 per contract, depending on trading volume.
E*TRADE features robust trading and analysis software. Forex trading and annuities are missing, but E*TRADE鈥檚 advanced trading platform, launched in December and called Power E*TRADE, integrates the options trading and education tools via their acquisition of OptionsHouse, and should provide a lot of value to stock and options traders.
E*TRADE eliminated its base trading commissions on equities, ETFs, and options in the U.S., effective October 7th, 2019.
More research and analytical tools than most of the other brokers we reviewed
User-friendly options trading platform
Huge investments in their infrastructure over the last few years
Only frequent traders and those with high account balances can access a specialized support channel
Dividend reinvestment unavailable online
- Account Minimum: $0
- Fees: $0 for stock/ETF trades, $0 plus $0.65/contract for options trade
Fidelity offers a wide range of trading capabilities, research, and education opportunities that can help the new investor grow. With over $2 trillion in assets under management, Fidelity is a massive broker with the ability to use its scale to deliver excellent customer support and low trading costs.
In October of 2019, all U.S. stocks and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) no longer incur a commission, and the base per-leg charge for options trades has also been eliminated. Options trades are $0.65 per contract under Fidelity's new pricing.
Superior trade routing algorithms
No requirements for their Active Trader Pro platform
Calculators to help new traders avoid entering orders that might be rejected due to inadequate buying power
Features spread across several platforms
Low balance fees for some mutual funds
- Account Minimum: $0
- Fees: Free stock, ETF and options trading commissions in the U.S., as of October 7th, 2019. $0.65 per options contract.
Currently, among our top five Best Brokers for Beginners, Schwab offers the lowest combination of trading commissions and account minimums. Schwab also offers a wide array of commission-free exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and mutual funds for those who aren鈥檛 interested in individual stocks. Those who are interested in stocks and options will find world-class research.
Schwab eliminated its base commissions for stock and ETF transactions as well as its per-leg fee for options trades.
A wealth of information created by highly rated research analysts and news sources
Waivable account minimum
The sheer number of features and reports available can feel overwhelming
Schwab maintains transaction history for just 24 months online
Several different trading platforms make it hard to keep track of everything
- Account Minimums: $0
- Fees: $0 per stock trade. Options trades $0 per leg plus $0.65 per contract
With its growing group of financial advisors and a $0 minimum initial investment, Bank of America鈥檚 Merrill Edge provides an excellent home base for beginning traders who are either looking for a little more hand-holding, want to start with a smaller account, or both. The firm鈥檚 technology focuses on helping clients plan for financial goals, and their 鈥淧ortfolio Story鈥 experience is a great way to track progress towards those goals. Among other features, the Portfolio Story tracks your investments in terms of environmental, social, and governance ratings.
Recognizing that younger investors prefer to use mobile devices, Merrill has made its desktop and app experiences increasingly similar, making the transition from one to the other much smoother.
Merrill Edge employs financial advisors at more than 2,000 Bank of America locations for in-person service
$0 Minimum Initial Investment
Top-notch education for new stock and options investors
$5,000 minimum to access Merrill Edge Guided Investing robo-advisory platform
What Is a Stock Broker?
A stock broker is a firm that executes buy and sell orders for stocks and other securities on behalf of retail and institutional clients. Different stock brokers offer varying levels of service and charge a range of commissions and fees based on those services. The most commonly referenced stock broker firms are聽discount brokers.
Do You Need a Lot of Money to Use a Stock Broker?
Fortunately, little money is necessary to start a brokerage account. Many discount brokers are offering anywhere between $0 and $500 account minimums, making it easy for anyone to get started.
What You Need to Open a Brokerage Account
Make sure you have the following details handy when you're ready to start the process:
- Date of birth
- Social security number (or taxpayer identification number)
- Telephone number
- E-Mail Address
- Driver's license, passport information, or other government-issued identification
- Employment status and occupation
- Annual income
- Net Worth
Trading vs. Investing
Generally, when people talk about investors, they are referring to the practice of purchasing assets to be held for a long period of time. Investors hold their assets for the long term so that they may reach a retirement goal or so their money can grow more quickly than it would in a standard savings account accruing interest.
In contrast, trading involves buying and selling assets in a short period of time with the goal of making quick profits. Trading is typically seen as riskier than investing and should be avoided by the inexperienced and those new to the stock market.
Discount Brokerage vs. Full-Service Brokerage
There are different types of brokers that beginning investors can consider based on the level of service and cost you are willing to pay. A full-service, or traditional broker, can provide a deeper set of services and products than what a typical discount brokerage does. Full-service brokers can give their clients financial and retirement planning as well as tax and investment advice. These additional services and features usually come at a steeper price.
If you are looking for a cheaper, more hands-on approach, a discount broker is a better choice. Discount brokers offer low-commission rates on trades and usually have web-based platforms or apps for you to manage your investments. Discount brokers are cheaper, but require you to pay close attention and educate yourself. Luckily, most discount brokers provide educational resources to help you learn to trade and invest.
How to Pick a Stock Broker
To choose a stock broker you must ask yourself a series of questions. These include: Am I a beginner? How much can I afford to invest right now? Am I a trader or an investor? What kind of assets would I like to invest in?
There are quite a few things to consider when going through this process. To help out with this check out our guide to choosing the right stock broker.
Is My Money Safe in a Brokerage?
All brokerages operating within the U.S. are required to have $500,000 of SIPC protection, which includes a $250,000 limit for cash. This means that any holdings with a brokerage that exceed $500,000 could be lost in the event that a brokerage goes bankrupt or is liquidated. That said, retail investors, especially beginners, are unlikely to have accounts that exceed $500,000. Therefore, there's little cause for concern when it comes to the security of your money in a brokerage account.
Can I Withdraw Money From a Stock Broker?
Withdrawing your money from a brokerage is relatively straightforward. When you have money in a brokerage it is generally invested into certain assets. Sometimes there is cash left on the side that is in the account but not invested. This excess cash can always be withdrawn at any time similar to a bank account withdrawal. The other money that is invested can only be withdrawn by liquidating the positions held. This means selling the assets that you purchased like stocks, ETFs, and mutual funds. Once sold, you can withdraw that cash.
Types of Brokerage Accounts
There are a number of types of accounts available at brokerages:
- Cash accounts: A cash account is a brokerage account in which a customer is required to pay the full amount for securities purchased, and聽buying on margin聽is prohibited. The Federal Reserve's聽Regulation T聽governs cash accounts and the purchase of securities on margin. This regulation gives investors two business days to pay for securities.
- Margin Accounts: A margin account is a聽brokerage account聽in which the broker lends the customer cash to purchase stocks or other financial products. The loan in the account is collateralized by the securities purchased and cash, and comes with a聽periodic interest rate. Because the customer is investing with borrowed money, the customer is using leverage which will magnify profits and losses for the customer.
- Retirement Accounts: Brokerages offer all types of retirement accounts like Traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and 401(k)s.
Terms for Beginners to Know
Anyone who would like to get involved in the stock market should know some basic terminology:
- Stock: A stock (also known as "shares" or "equity")聽is a type of security that signifies proportionate ownership in the issuing聽corporation. This entitles the stockholder to that proportion of the corporation's assets and earnings.
- Price-to-Earnings Ratio 鈥 P/E Ratio: The price-to-earnings ratio (P/E ratio) is a ratio for valuing a company that measures its current share price relative to its per-share earnings (EPS).聽The price-to-earnings ratio is also sometimes known as the聽price multiple聽or the earnings聽multiple.
- Market Capitalization: Market capitalization, commonly referred to as "market cap," refers to the total dollar market value of a company's outstanding聽shares. Market cap is calculated by multiplying a company's shares outstanding by the current market price of one share.
- Dividend: A dividend is the distribution of reward from a portion of the company's earnings and is paid to a class of its shareholders.
- Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF): An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is a collection of securities鈥攕uch as stocks鈥攖hat typically tracks an underlying聽index.
- Bond: A bond is a聽fixed income instrument聽that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or governmental). A bond could be thought of as an I.O.U. between the聽lender聽and borrower that includes the details of the loan and its payments.
- Mutual Fund: A mutual fund is a type of financial vehicle made up of a pool of money聽collected from many investors to invest in securities such as stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other assets. Mutual funds are operated by professional聽money managers, who allocate the fund's assets and attempt to produce capital gains or income for the fund's investors.
- Limit Order: A limit order is the use of a pre-specified price to buy or sell a聽security. For example, if a trader is looking to buy XYZ鈥檚 stock but has a limit of $14.50, they will only buy the stock at a price of $14.50 or lower. If the trader is looking to sell shares of XYZ鈥檚 stock with a $14.50 limit, the trader will not sell any shares until the price is $14.50 or higher.聽聽
- Market Order: A market order is a request by an investor 鈥 usually made through a聽broker 鈥 to buy or sell a security at the best available price in the current market. It is widely considered the fastest and most reliable way to enter or exit a trade and provides the most likely method of getting in or out of a trade quickly. For many聽large-cap聽liquid stocks, market orders fill nearly instantaneously.
If you're interested in learning more about the stock market you can check out our guide to investing.
Investopedia is dedicated to providing investors with unbiased, comprehensive reviews and ratings of online brokers. Our reviews are the result of six months of evaluating all aspects of an online broker鈥檚 platform, including the user experience, the quality of trade executions, the products available on their platforms, costs and fees, security, the mobile experience and customer service. We established a rating scale based on our criteria, collecting over 3,000 data points that we weighed into our star scoring system.
In addition, every broker we surveyed was required to fill out a 320-point survey about all aspects of their platform that we used in our testing. Many of the online brokers we evaluated provided us with in-person demonstrations of their platforms at our offices.
Our team of industry experts, led by Theresa W. Carey, conducted our reviews and developed this best-in-industry methodology for ranking online investing platforms for users at all levels. Click here to read our full methodology.